Global Peace And Security Essay

Can we make UN peacekeeping great again? | May 9, 2017

Alexandra Novosseloff

If UN peacekeeping operations are “at a crossroads” as the Secretary-General told the Security Council on 6 April, then it is a policy and linguistic roundabout. This is the same phrase that a senior official used to describe the Brahimi report in 2000 and others used to characterize the work of the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operati Read More...


Sustaining Peace and Prevention: Comparing Responses to Crises in Gambia and Burundi | April 17, 2017

Center on International Cooperation

This workshop was the fourth in the “Applying Sustaining Peace” series, and focused on how to conceptualize prevention through a sustaining peace lens. Later this year, the Secretary-General’s forthcoming report on Sustaining Peace will further explore and define sustaining peace. This workshop drew on two recent and interesting cases, the EC Read More...


Democratise or disintegrate: How the AU can help South Sudan | March 22, 2017

Amanda Lucey

Liezelle Kumalo

The implementation of South Sudan’s latest peace agreement appears to be at a standstill. Insecurity, food shortages and the breakdown in governance have forced more than 1.5 million people to flee the country. President Salva Kiir’s announcement of a forthcoming national dialogue offers some hope. Yet people are divided on the legitimacy of t Read More...


Partnering for sustainable peace in Liberia | February 21, 2017

Amanda Lucey

Liezelle Kumalo

Liberia is at a pivotal point in its transition to a peaceful democracy. In October 2017 the country will have its first ‘open seat’ elections. The incumbent, President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, will step down and hand over power to the leader of one of the 22 political parties that are currently participating in the election. Moreover, despite se Read More...


Sustaining Peace and Peace Operation Mandates: The Liberia Transition | February 2, 2017

Gizem Sucuoglu

Applying Sustaining Peace Workshop 1 On 14 December 2016, NYU’s Center on International Cooperation (CIC), the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation (DHF) and the International Peace Institute (IPI) organized the first in a series of workshops in support of efforts to better understand and implement sustaining peace. At this first workshop, participants Read More...


GPOR Annual Compilation | January 26, 2017

This is the second edition of the Global Peace Operations Review (GPOR) annual compilation. It is the first to collect a full year’s worth of content from the website in a single publication. Using an online platform allows us to constantly innovate, and we plan to continue to evolve between these annual releases. Producing the annual compilation Read More...


Towards a Continental Strategy for Countering Violent Extremism in Africa | December 19, 2016

Tarek A. Sharif

Joanne Richards

Violent Extremism is now recognized as a growing threat to peace and security in Africa, as exemplified by the recent terrorist attacks in Garissa, Abidjan, and Ouagadougou. While much of the policy discussion on Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) focuses on the return of radicalized foreign fighters to the West, less attention is directed to those Read More...


Has UN Peacekeeping Become More Deadly? | December 14, 2016

Marina E. Henke

Many practitioners believe that peacekeeping has become an increasingly dangerous undertaking in recent years. My research paper “Has UN Peacekeeping Become More Deadly? Analyzing Trends in UN Fatalities”, tries to get at the heart of this question. It examines trends in fatalities using a new dataset compiled by the Department of Peacekeeping Read More...


Challenges for Human Rights Sections of UN Peace Operations | December 13, 2016

Alexis Guidotti

Recent adaptations of peacekeeping practice are bringing into question the role of civilian components in UN peace operations, notably the human rights sections. When António Guterres succeeds Ban Ki-moon as UN Secretary-General, many problems will be waiting for him, including challenges to the fundamental values underpinning UN peacekeeping. Un Read More...


No Caveats, Please?: Breaking a Myth in UN Peace Operations | September 12, 2016

Alexandra Novosseloff

For years, the UN Secretariat said caveats were not allowed in peacekeeping operations. Mentioning them was a kind of “taboo”. They existed on the ground but were rarely acknowledged at the political level in New York. But when operations faced a crisis and troops needed to take more risks than usual, the hitherto hidden restrictions quickly ap Read More...


The Challenges of Full Deployment on UN Peace Operations | September 7, 2016

Ryan Rappa

The UN has always had problems deploying its largest, infantry-heavy missions. The 2015 Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping and this week’s 2016 UN Peacekeeping Defence Ministerial in London are Member State driven initiatives to do better. Broader participation in contributing to missions is a key part of rapid deployment as well as reaching full Read More...


When should blue helmets walk away from a conflict? | August 16, 2016

Richard Gowan

The renewed crisis in South Sudan is turning into a decisive test for the United Nations. There is a growing international outcry over reports that local forces raped and killed civilians almost in front of UN peacekeepers. The Security Council has struggled to persuade the South Sudanese government to accept the deployment of an additional 4,000 t Read More...


Demystifying Intelligence in UN Peace Operations: Toward an Organizational Doctrine | July 26, 2016

Alexandra Novosseloff

In a way, the title of our research paper “Demystifying Intelligence in UN Peace Operations: Toward an Organizational Doctrine”, speaks for itself. We all know that the UN secretariat has been walking on eggs with this issue of intelligence for years; doing it without saying it and without realizing it. But with peace operations involved in inc Read More...


With “Sustaining Peace” can the UN turn rhetoric into action? | July 20, 2016

Gizem Sucuoglu

Tanisha Hewanpola

In April 2015, Burundian President Pierre Nkurunziza announced that he would be seeking a third-term of office—a move that his opponents decried as unconstitutional. Protests and clashes between opposition supporters and security forces followed. Amid a rapidly deteriorating climate of serious human-rights violations, extrajudicial killings, inti Read More...


The Tunisia Conundrum: Sowing dictatorship, harvesting terrorism | June 28, 2016

Hanny Megally

Why is Tunisia producing the world’s largest numbers of jihadi foreign fighters when the country is seemingly the one success story emerging from the 2011 Arab uprisings? It is a conundrum that has confounded analysts not least because the answers have been very contradictory. Delving back into Tunisia’s modern history may help in contextualizi Read More...


Fixing UN Peacekeeping Operations: The World’s Most Complicated Army | May 31, 2016

Barbara Crossette

It has been almost a year since a sweeping assessment of United Nations peacekeeping operations by experts recommended significant changes from top to bottom: a reformed hierarchy in New York and greater coordination and discipline among military contingents in ever-more dangerous missions around the world. Few of their substantive ideas have been Read More...


What Does New Momentum for UN Peace and Security Really Mean? | May 18, 2016

Gustavo de Carvalho

Jonathan Rozen

A famous maxim of uncertain origin defines insanity as doing the same thing repeatedly, but expecting different results. In her opening statement at the United Nations (UN) High-Level Thematic Debate on Peace and Security, Nobel Peace laureate Leymah Gbowee used this definition to describe challenges faced by UN engagements in peace operations and Read More...


Key Messages from Civil Society on the UN’s role in Peace and Security | May 12, 2016

Ashraf Swelam

Adriana Erthal Abdenur

Cedric de Coning

Karim Hafez

On its 70th anniversary, the United Nations finds itself at a crossroads. Old and new threats, challenges and risks to international peace and security are increasingly testing the ability of the organization and the efficacy of the instruments available to it as it attempts to fulfill its primary promise: to “save succeeding generations from the Read More...


Between Bureaucracy and Adhocracy: Crafting a Spectrum of UN Peace Operations | March 31, 2016

Ian Johnstone

The array of tools the UN has developed to prevent, manage and resolve conflict has expanded in recent years. They are being deployed in new formats, from political missions and small peacebuilding teams, to large observer missions and multidimensional peace operations with offensive capabilities. But the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Opera Read More...


GPOR Annual Compilation now available via print-on-demand | March 22, 2016

For almost a decade, the Annual Review of Global Peace Operations (ARGPO) was the flagship publication of the Center on International Cooperation (CIC). During that time, CIC also released three editions of the Review of Political Missions. Together, they set the standard for analyzing UN and non-UN peace operations with enduring thematic essays, t Read More...


Who are the Killers of Beni? |

Jason Stearns

Since October 2014, the region around the town of Beni in north eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) has been the site of some of the worst massacres in the country’s recent history. Over five hundred people have been killed and tens of thousands have fled their homes. The UN mission and the Congolese government have publicly state Read More...


Is the UN really moving toward gender equality? | March 8, 2016

Ourania S. Yancopoulos

New research raises the question of whether the UN is burying statistics on gender representation in order to cover up lack of progress. The United Nation’s founding charter highlights not only the mission “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,” but “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights” - specifically, “in t Read More...


Politics in Place of Peace: The AU’s Role in Burundi | February 11, 2016

Lesley Connolly

When the decision [around Burundi] reached the level of the Assembly of Heads of States, it showed that in absence of consent there is no political willingness of African leaders to act against their own Burundi has been moving toward greater instability since President Pierre Nkurunziza decided to stand for a third term in May 2015. Nkurunziza c Read More...


Preventing Violent Extremism by Protecting Rights And Addressing Root Causes | February 9, 2016

Hanny Megally

Short-sighted policies, failed leadership, heavy-handed approaches, a single-minded focus only on security measures and an utter disregard for human rights have often made things worse. The eagerly-awaited United Nations Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism (PVE) is an ambitious and much-needed shift toward tackling the root causes that lea Read More...


Hurry Up and Wait: EU Battlegroups and a UN Rapid Reaction Force | January 21, 2016

Yf Reykers

Throughout its public discourse, the EU keeps expressing a strong commitment toward supporting the UN in maintaining international peace and security. This includes habitually recommitting to deploying the EU Battlegroups. There have been many calls for the UN to develop a peacekeeping rapid reaction capacity that would allow blue helmets to fly o Read More...


Protection of Civilians Strategy: A Greater Role for the Council | January 14, 2016

Ralph Mamiya

The protection of civilians mandate in peacekeeping was a reaction to the challenges peacekeepers directly faced in Rwanda and the Balkans and more generally a reaction to the ‘new wars’ of the post-Cold War world. Fifteen years ago, the Brahimi Report established the importance of the protection of civilians in UN peacekeeping. The recent rep Read More...


European Military Contributions to UN Peace Operations in Africa | January 12, 2016

Richard Gowan

European forces have played a very limited military role in United Nations (UN) peace operations in Africa over the last two decades. In some periods, European personnel have accounted for less than 2% of the blue helmets on the continent. Yet there is now new momentum among NATO and European Union (EU) members to play a more significant part in UN Read More...


Support Mechanisms: Multilateral, Multi-Level, and Mushrooming | December 17, 2015

Teresa Whitfield

This is the seventh essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of Multilateral Envoys in Peacemaking. The idea that “peace processes must be well-supported politically, technically and financially”, as UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon stated in the introduction to the UN Guidance for Effective Mediation, is something of a truism. Certai Read More...


Multilateral Envoys: Challenges to Assessing Success | December 9, 2015

Center on International Cooperation

This is the sixth essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of multilateral envoys in peacemaking. Envoys dispatched to make peace deploy with a bag full of assumptions. Those who send them believe the multilateral framework gives their emissary the moral legitimacy to intervene. They think that pooling efforts under one collective engage Read More...


Where Envoys Aren’t | December 8, 2015

Teresa Whitfield

This is the fifth essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of multilateral envoys in peacemaking. This series of essays was conceived to document and analyze the work of multilateral envoys, particularly their engagement in efforts to mediate or manage armed conflict. It necessarily focuses on the conflicts in which one or more multilater Read More...


Meet the Envoys: Trends in Envoy Profiles and Appointments | December 7, 2015

Nora Gordon

This is the fourth essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of multilateral envoys in peacemaking. Since the first UN mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte, was appointed in 1948 to serve as UN Mediator in Palestine, multilateral institutions have increasingly deployed envoys to mediate conflicts between and within countries, and more recentl Read More...


Choosing Envoys Wisely | November 23, 2015

Bart M.J. Szewczyk

This is the third essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of multilateral envoys in peacemaking. Special envoys are, by definition, agents appointed by a principal or a group of principals for a particular task. Yet their scope of power and authority varies across institutions. Different international organizations have made distinct dec Read More...


Three’s a Crowd? Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Conflict Mediation | November 19, 2015

Alischa Kugel

This is the second essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of multilateral envoys in peacemaking. Out of the at least 51 multilateral envoys deployed in 2013 to address conflict situations around the world, 28 envoys from different multilateral institutions worked together in mediating conflicts in the same country, region or sub-region Read More...


Lessons from Multilateral Envoys | November 18, 2015

Alischa Kugel

Richard Gowan

This is the first essay in a series of seven that looks at the role of multilateral envoys in peacemaking. Mediation was a central concern for the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations convened in October 2014. The group had a deliberately broad mandate to review the UN’s peacekeeping operations (PKOs) and Special Political Missions ( Read More...


Triangular Cooperation – Key to All | November 10, 2015

Alexandra Novosseloff

Triangular cooperation is an idea that has been around for many years. It is supported by many, feared by some, but so far it has never been really implemented. The concept has now been resurrected by the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations (HIPPO) report. It is the key for all peacekeeping operations. Without cooperation between the Read More...


UN Peace Operations and Counter-Terrorism – A Bridge Too Far? | October 29, 2015

John Karlsrud

During the United Nations General Assembly, U.S. President Barack Obama chaired two summits – the first on peace operations on September 28, and one the following day on counter-terrorism. His participation in both demonstrated the level of commitment of the U.S., and the American belief that the UN is still relevant to tackling these challenges. Read More...


The Hazards of the Peculiar UN-NATO Relationship | October 15, 2015

Yf Reykers

More than two decades ago, the UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali in An Agenda for Peace highlighted the necessity of regional support “to lighten the burden of the Council”. He called it “a matter of delegation”. One organization that has occasionally acted upon authorization of the UN Security Council (UNSC) is the North Atlantic Read More...


Can Attack Helicopters Save U.N. Peacekeeping? | September 28, 2015

James Traub

Does U.N. peacekeeping matter? President Barack Obama believes that it does — and he has advocated the cause more forcefully than any of his predecessors since George H. W. Bush, who once looked to the U.N. to help forge a “new world order.” The catastrophes of Somalia, Rwanda, and Bosnia purged that dream forever; but from literally his firs Read More...


How can the UN move towards more people-centered peace operations? | September 23, 2015

John Karlsrud

A slew of recent reviews, such as the high level panel on UN peace operations report (HIPPO report), the 2015 review of the UN peacebuilding architecture and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, have all put people at the front and center of the international community’s efforts to bring about peace, security and development. These report Read More...


Les opérations de maintien de la paix : le réalisme confronté aux ambitions | August 19, 2015

Alexandra Novosseloff

Les Casques bleus face à une nouvelle crise de croissance ? Contrairement aux pronostics faits à la fin des années 90, le maintien de la paix n’a cessé de s’accroitre depuis, au point d’atteindre un nouveau pic de déploiement, avec la mise en place de deux nouvelles opérations (MINUSMA-Mali et MINUSCA-Centrafrique) et l’augmentation Read More...


A Background to the Report of the High-Level Panel on Peace Operations | August 6, 2015

Jean Arnault

A year ago, when the Secretary-General put forward the idea of a new review of peacekeeping operations, he naturally referred to the Brahimi report. He argued that as the 15-year anniversary of that report approached, it was necessary “to take stock of evolving expectations of UN peacekeeping and how the Organization can work toward a shared view Read More...


Missed Opportunities: Gender and the UN’s Peacebuilding and Peace Operations Reports | July 30, 2015

Anne-Marie Goetz

Rob Jenkins

Gender issues are now a regular feature of the international community’s approach to promoting peace and security. Two high-profile reports recently issued by the UN – on peace operations and the organization’s peacebuilding architecture – include significant content on the role that women play in war and its aftermath. Both reports stress Read More...


The “Gaping Hole” in the UN for Sustaining Peace | July 28, 2015

In 2015, multiple reviews of the UN’s peace efforts have added to the collective realization that UN peace operations – designed in the 1990s to support post-civil war peace deals – may have reached their limits for maintaining international peace and security. A UN High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations has just published its repor Read More...


The UN Panel on Peace Operations: Getting the Politics Right? | June 19, 2015

Jim Della-Giacoma

All peace operations are political. Ian Martin wrote an essay with that title in CIC’s first Review of Political Missions in 2010. It is unsurprising, then, that the report of the High-Level Panel on Peace Operations of which he has been a prominent member has the same starting point. When the United Nations intervenes, it is not using diplomacy Read More...


10 Trends in Peace Operations | June 17, 2015

Richard Gowan

The last two years have seen a surge in peace operations. As the data in this review shows, UN deployments grew by 8.5% in 2013 and 2014 to involve over 100,000 soldiers and police officers. In the same period, NATO drew down its presence in Afghanistan but the number of personnel deployed by other regional organizations – primarily in Africa – Read More...


New Tools for Blue Helmets | June 16, 2015

John Karlsrud

The United Nations had entered the 21st century”, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Hervé Ladsous told troops at a 2013 ceremony for the first deployment of observation drones in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2014, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched an expert panel review of technology and innovation in peacekeeping. When i Read More...


Peace And Security Essay

Collective security is one type of coalition building strategy whether global or regional in which a group of nations agree not to attack each other and to defend each other against an attack from one of the others, if such an attack is made. The principal is that "an attack against one is an attack against all." It differs from "collective defense" which is a coalition of nations which agree to defend its own group against outside attacks. It can also be described as a system where states attempt with its use to prevent or stop wars. Examples of Collective defense are NATO and the Warsaw Pact .The United Nations (UN) is the best example at an attempt at collective security. Many nations enter into such an agreement in an effort to maintain the status quo and to secure their best interests. Collective security is achieved when states come to an agreement on the need for same. As a result an international organization is formed under the rules of international law. The collective security organization then becomes an arena for diplomacy, balance of power and exercise of soft power. The use of hard power by states, unless legitimized by the Collective Security organization, is considered illegitimate, reprehensible and needing remediation of some kind. This idea of collective security was posited by people such as Immanuel Kant and Woodrow Wilson. There are a few basic assumptions as it relates to collective security, including , In an armed conflict, member nation-states will be able to agree on which nation is the aggressor another basic assumption is that each member state has freedom of action and ability to join in proceedings against the aggressor. Also of great importance is the fact that all member nation-states are equally committed to contain and constrain the aggression, irrespective of its source or origin. According tom Morgenthau there are three prerequisites that must be met in order for collective security to be effective , these are, the collective security system must be able to assemble military force in strength greatly in excess to that assembled by the aggressor(s) thereby deterring the aggressor(s) from attempting to change the world order defended by the collective security system. Those nations, whose combined strength would be used for deterrence as mentioned in the first prerequisite, should have identical beliefs about the security of the world order that the collective is defending. Nations must be willing to subordinate their conflicting interests to the common good defined in terms of the common defense of all member-states. Within the scope of collective security there are those that advocate for it as well as those that are more vocal about the limitations of such a system. Many of the proponents see it as more effective approach to security than individual countries trying to act alone as many countries are unable to effectively defend themselves. It promotes as previously stated international cooperation...

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Discuss the extent to which International assistance can and should be effectively used to achieve security sector reform as part of post-conflict peace-building.

3491 words - 14 pages IntroductionDuring conflicts, military forces are habituated in committing egregious human rights violations, likewise are the ruthless paramilitary bodies that fall outside the chain of command. Also, the judicial system and the principle of rule of law are either routinely sidestepped, or abused along ethno-political contours. In short, the entire system of government is skewed towards the rationale of war. Hence, the need to reform...

Security Sector Reform Contributes to Sustainable Peace

1441 words - 6 pages War and disease are eminent in this world. But is peace possible? In this world of starving children, mutiny, betrayal, crisis, and national debt. In a world so corrupt and hateful that people are murdered in the streets and the elderly have all but lost hope for the coming generation. But, is it the world itself that is corrupt and cruel? Or is it the many governments that try to rule it. Governments that confine the rights of the citizens and...

United Nations Security Council Is Unsuccessful in Keeping Peace

1318 words - 5 pages United Nations Security Council Is Unsuccessful in Keeping Peace The threat of a nuclear attack on the USA has become a common topic after terrorist attacks on September 11. A lot of people have been talking about a missile defense system for the US. With the kinds of terrorist attacks being executed today, who knows what will come next. Some people worry that next time it will be a nuke knocking on Uncle Sam's door instead of a few...

Concept of Security in the Context of International Relations

2287 words - 9 pages The most commonly used definition by scholars is the definition of Barry Buzan in his book People, States, and Fear says that: "Security, in any objective sense, measures the absence of threat to acquired values, in a wiki sense, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked" (Buzan, 1991:4). Then from the definitions that have been mentioned by the penstudi HI can be seen that the security threat is the lack of values needed to live a...

Security Sector Reforms

1255 words - 5 pages In the world, there are many third world countries that have or have had a dictator that needs to be or has been overthrown. Libya was one of those third world countries. Their dictator, Muammar Gaddafi, was killed. When a dictator is overthrown, the security sector usually falls with them. When things like this happen, a change must take place. One of the things that needs to be done is to reform the country’s security sector. A country’s...

UN Security Council and the International Court of Justice

1396 words - 6 pages Introduction The Security Council and the International Court of Justice, both were established around 60 years back, for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security by developing mutual faith and promoting cooperation between the countries who were the victims of the deadliest manslaughter that the world has ever witnessed, i.e. The World War II. In order to achieve the same objectives, in both the world vested enormous powers,...

What Is Peace?

2225 words - 9 pages Humans are obsessed with categorizing. We split the people and things of the world into millions of groups and give them names, characteristics, and stereotypes. Ethnicity, sexuality, religion, political view, genus and species: these all reflect the human’s constant need to note, name, and categorize. Still not convinced? Look at a dictionary. The fact that it was even created proves a tendency of the human mind to solidify things, their...

John Herz and The Concept of Security

1564 words - 6 pages Research on security base is an approach that is very encouraging because it arises from the desire to reduce conflict and deter the onset of war. The concept of security itself is a concept that was developed since the early 1950s by John Herz, he considers security as a result of the power relations between states. Traditionally the literature on international relations based on the strength and peace. The researchers who prefer to approach...

Internet Security

1517 words - 6 pages Internet Security Internet Security is the most important aspect of information technology. It has been years since computer has been invented and to keep the information confidential we have to safeguard this information. The importance of integrating security measures into systems development. Every business has their own security systems to reach their goals of information security. The computer world created security systems in...

Democracy in The Middle East

1227 words - 5 pages The imposing of liberal democracy into foreign states and in particular into the Middle East would not necessarily create peace due to their cultural and geographical context. From a westernised perspective we may heavily associate the nature of democracy with peace but the history of international relations and theory has continue to show that this is definitely not the case. The Democratic Peace Theory itself contains weakness and...

Critical Review: Bradley A. Thayer, Bring in Darwin: Evolutionary theory, Realism, and International Relations

1203 words - 5 pages In Thayer’s article, he makes an attempt to incorporate Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory into the international security studies. The article tries to answer a central question that what are the implications of Evolutionary theory to realist theory of international security and in what way can peace be achieved if warfare is part of human nature? This paper agrees with Thayer that Evolutionary theory provides a scientific theory foundation for...

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